Final Ecosystem Services
Ecosystem services can be considered final in a way that they are the outputs of ecosystems (whether natural, semi-natural or artificial) that most directly affect the well-being of people. A fundamental characteristic is that they retain a connection to the underlying ecosystem functions, processes and structures or intermediate ecosystem services that generate them (Haines-Young & Potschin 2013, p. 9) 1) . Final ecosystem services are also relevant for economic accounting of ecosystem services. They are considered the appropriate entity for the valuation of ecosystem services to avoid duplicated assessment and ensure a parsimonious system of accounting (Boyd & Banzhaf 2007; Staub et al. 2011) 2)) 3) . Furthermore they are a matter of perspective. The provision of clean surface water might be a final service in regards to drinking purposes but may also be an intermediate service (See the opposite, intermediate services) providing a suitable habitat for fish. In this perspective the provision of wild aquatic animals as a source of nutrition is the final service (Boyd & Banzhaf 2007) 4) .
Final ecosystem services are in the focus of the AlpES project, but for an integrated environmental governance also intermediate services should be considered and made aware of for strategic reasons.