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Mobility and Residential Costs - smart locations for better liveability

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Project summary

“Insufficient accessibility to public transport services is one of the results of urban sprawl arising out of the dynamic settlement development in the hinterland of Alpine cities. This forces people to motorised private transport which causes environmental pollution, traffic congestion, high follow-up costs for infrastructure, high individual mobility costs and high time expenditure for commuting and daily supply. MORECO actively supports a sustainable, resource-friendly settlement development which follows supply facilities and public transport axes. For this purpose it combines planning measures and spatial policies with activities of transport providers and mobility actors. In addition a bottom up approach involves house hunting households and residential construction actors who have direct influence on the property market. Innovative tools, ensuring reliable information and high transparency of long-term MObility + REsidential COsts, support the actors in their decision-making processes.” Source: Moreco project summary




Pilot region Country
City of Salzburg and District Salzburg UmgebungAT
City of Munich and Munich Transport and Tariff Association AreaDE
Alpine Corridor - Genève-Valence F
Union of Mountain Municipalities of Pinerolese Area (Piedmont) IT
City of Mantova and Mantova Hinterland IT
Val Belluna and Val Boite e Cientro Cadore IT
Urban Municipality of Novo Mesto and Jugovzhodna Slovenija Statistical RegionSI


Results of a project can be differentiated in outputs, outcomes and impacts of an intervention. Source:OECD Glossary of Key Terms in Evaluation and Results Based Management.

Output Output categoryLanguage(s)Target groupRemark
SWOT Analysis: Settlement and MobilityStudy, DataEN Decision makers, Civil servants/administration, PlannersThe document describes the results of a SWOT analysis of pilot regions. It gives an overview of the spatial location, dependent strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of each pilot site. The mentioned aspects are categorised by the topics demographic development, settlement development, infrastructure and traffic and mobility. Common challenges concerning the settlement structure and the mobility situation of the pilot sites are high residential costs (especially in the city centres), unsustainable mobility behaviour of the population (especially in the peripheral and suburban areas), car-oriented attitudes of the upcoming elderly generation and decentralised settlement structure. more information
SWOT Analysis: Laws and Policies Study, DataEN Decision makers, Civil servants/administration, Planners, ScientistsThis analysis shows an overview of the regulative background in the Alpine Space programme cooperation area based on pilot sites questionnaire analysis results. The overview is structured in the chapters 1) National, regional and local laws and regulations on settlement development, 2) National, regional and local laws and regulations on transportation (mobility and accessibility), 3) Sustainable urban mobility plans and 4) Spatial plans. The SWOT analyses shows that there is a wide variety of framework conditions in the different pilot sites. This means that there is also a wide range of problems which need to be solved in each pilot site. more information
Factsheets – Overview of pilot sitesStudy, DataENCivil servants/administration, Planners, Scientists, Project stakeholders, JTSIt gives a short and graphical overview of each MORECO pilot site. more information
Motivation of Residential Site and Mobility Mode DecisionsTheory, Study, DataENCivil servants/administration, Planners, Scientists, Project stakeholdersMoreco also deals with the relationship between location decisions and mobility. This document gives an overview of motivation as well as on elements of mobility and site decision making processes which motivate household and other stakeholder’s choice of housing location and mode of transport. more information
Good Practice Collection of Integrated Planning ApproachesBest practiceEN Decision makers, Civil servants/administration, PlannersMoreco focuses on effective planning approaches which combine especially settlement and transport development and/or mobility aspects. Two areas: Integrative (planning and mobility) practice + Decision making practice. more information
Good Practice Collection of ToolsBest practiceEN Decision makers, Civil servants/administration, PlannersThe document analyses specific tools, implementation of these tools in existing governance and tool’s effects for better governance. It contains some international, already implemented tools which serve as examples for the technical development of the MORECO tools for private households as well as for planners and decision makers. more information
Winter School ReportConference reportEN Decision makers, Civil servants/administration, Planners, ScientistsPresents proceedings of the winter school and the results of the world café sessions. “The purpose of the event was to receive expert input, learn about good and bad practices, exchange ideas, establish networks, as well as enable creative exchange on possible tools and measures to reach the MORECO targets.” more information
Conference Report – Impacts on Urban Development CostsConference reportEN Decision makers, Civil servants/administration, Planners, ScientistsResumes the results of the conference “The impact of residential choices and commuter mobility on urban development costs for local authorities”. The conference was organised and hosted by the Rhône-Alpes Region with the support of the UrbaCube network of urban-planning agencies. The main text refers to the salient points of the conference, and boxes provide further reading. more information
MethodologyIntermediate, MethodsENProject stakeholders (intern), JTSDetails on project objectives, the overall methodology, target groups, governance approach and expected results. more information
Ex-ante Evaluation,Action PlansIntermediate, MethodsENProject stakeholders (intern), JTSThe foreseen pilot activities have been evaluated during autumn 2012 in order to ensure close reference to methodology.The MORECO Action plan defines the implementation and experimentation of the MORECO methodology by the project partners (PP) within seven MORECO pilot sites. more information
Tools for households Tool framework, GuidelinesEN Civil servants / administration, Planners, Scientists, Civil societyThe general aim of the calculation tool for private households is to give an overview about the mobility and residential costs for an inhabitant of the Alpine Space region per month referring on the individual residential site decision. The biggest part of the tool concentrates on the calculation of the mobility costs of a household divided into car costs and the costs for the public transport means. The tool should be available for everybody in the Alpine Space region. more information
Tools for householdsToolEN, DE, FR, IT, SICivil servants/administration, Planners, Civil society/citizensBased on the common framework, the tools were developed locally in the pilot areas. There is also a more general tool. General tool,Salzburg(AT), Munich(D), Kaiserslautern(D), Novomesto(SI), Alpine Corridor(F,CH), Belluno(IT). more information
Tools for Planners and Mobility Actors: Framework,GuidelineTool framework, GuidelinesENCivil servants / administration, PlannersThe main purpose of the tools is to support a sustainable settlement development, with a focus on mobility costs, mobility behaviour, or in more general on mobility aspects. For the tool development geographical information systems, models, spatial indicators and geospatial data are used in order to create a decision support device. more information
Tools for Planners and Mobility Actors: Regional Analysis, MapsTool framework, Tool, Data, MapIT, FR, ENCivil servants / administration, PlannersThe aim is to show how indicators and information techniques can help to describe a region from an interdisciplinary point of view, to derive core indicators for further characterisation and to support a sustainable regional development. more iinformation
Tools for Planners and Mobility Actors: Settlement AssessmentTool framework, Tool, DataDE, FR, SI, ITCivil servants / administration, PlannersTool helps to analyse settlement areas with regard to their suitability as residential locations and to support residential location decisions. Another focus of this part is to assess settlement areas regarding their induction of mobility costs. more information
Tools for Planners and Mobility Actors:Mobility PlanningTool framework, Tool, DataIT, FR, ENCivil servants / administration, Planners, ScientistsTool deals with accessibility analysis of settlement areas. It provides guidance with maps, diagraphs, interpretational texts, case studies. more information
Policy-Maker tool: Framework, Guideline, Slide poolTool framework, Guidelines, ToolEN, DE, FR, IT, SIDecision makers, Civil servants/administrationThe “Consultancy and Training Tool for Political Decision Making Processes” is designed as a slide pool, to be used by policy makers themselves or by experts and trainers in workshops, trainings, lessons and seminars. Slide pool accessible in results section, under topic 'Practical Tool Implementations'. Example: Instructions (english version). more information
Policy-Maker tool (Annex): Analysis of Spatial and Transport Planning Decision Making ProcessesStudy, Data, ReportENDecision makers, Civil servants / administration, Planners, ScientistsThe document presents concise case studies of each country, including information about existing planning and transport public policy systems. Summary tables are provided at the end of each section to facilitate comparisons at the Alpine level. more information
Press and Illustrative MaterialPublic relationEN, DE, FR, IT, SIDecision-makers, Civil servants/administration, Planners, Civil society/citizensTo reach the highest number of interested targets, the partners realized and diffused magazines, videos, comics, leaflets, activities in schools and many other dissemination materials. Example: Comics. more information
Final report: Ex-Post Evaluation of Pilot ActivitiesReportENDecision-makers, Civil servants/administration, Planners, Scientists, Project stakeholders (intern), JTSThe final report analyses and assesses the relevance, the impact and the sustainability of all pilot activities carried out in five Alpine space countries, aiming at drawing lessons and giving recommendations for similar projects in the future. more information
MORECO White Book and DeclarationStrategy, GuidelinesEN, D, FR, IT, SLPolicy-makers, civil servants/administration, PlannersThe MORECO White Book presents a transferable governance strategy, and shall serve as a guideline for policy makers, spatial planners, housing and transport stakeholders. It is based on the MORECO project outcomes and their evaluation. It contains all transferable outputs and acknowledgements of the project, including recommendations and tool description for experts and technicians. Examples: Governance observations (EN), Lessons learnt (EN), MORECO Common Declaration. more information

In-depth analysis

Results which are directly or indirectly suitable or applicable for practitioners / politicians and civil servants / administration
The project with its different dissemination outputs had a strong operational perspective. “Pilot actions were used to stimulate awareness and discussions regarding urban sprawl and dynamic settlement developments in the hinterland of Alpine cities amongst regional stakeholders and to lead towards concrete activities.” (Final report, p. 7). Pilot actions of the project are defined as measures that aim at introducing MORECO outputs into pilot region governance strategies, depending on the specific challenges. An important aim is as well to spread project output, acquired knowledge and information across the AS space and beyond. The most re-usable and transferable outputs are the good practice collections of tools, the specific tools for each target group, and the white paper which is a transferable governance strategy presented as guideline for policy makers. It contains all outputs, with recommendations and implementation description for technicians.

Which of the project results are usable for which aspect of SSD and which are the most relevant for practitioners / politicians and civil servants / administration?
Settlement and transport planning:

  • Good Practice Collection of Integrated Planning Approaches
  • Guideline and framework: Tools for Planners and Mobility Actors
  • A) Regional analysis tools, Maps
  • B) Settlement assessment tool
  • C) Mobility planning tool
  • Guideline and framework: Policy-Maker tool, slide pool
  • White Book and Declaration

Inducing behavorial change:

  • Good Practice Collection of Tools
  • Guideline and framework: Tools for Households
  • Tools for Households

Are there results which need further steps to be useful for practitioners / politicians and civil servants / administration?
The majority of outputs are only available in English, e.g. guidelines and frameworks (detailed descriptions of tool implementation), overall methodology (dissemination seems not to be the aim of MORECO) and SWOT analyses (of pilot regions, but method could be applied to other regions). Especially local practioners might find difficulties to work with the load of English documents. The white paper is available in all alpine languages + EN and gives the most relevant information and recommendations for tool development. However, detailed information on implementation in other areas is lacking. Especially the household tools and tools of regional analysis, mostly based on available regional and local data, needs to be adapted to the regional and local context. Data availability and structure is not equal across the alpine regions, thus the project showed examples for analyses and tools, implemented in each pilot site.

Which kinds of stakeholders have been involved, how have their competences been used in the project and are there options for a better implementation?
Three types of stakeholders have been involved, specifically in the 7 pilot regions: Households (Households, commuters, web-users, associations of inhabitants, key players in the local communities, residential construction companies, banks, private firms), Planners and mobility actors (Spatial planners, transport experts and transport providers, journalists, scientists, NGO) and Policy makers (Mayors, local or regional decision makers, transport authorities, policy makers on regional, national or European level). Throughout the project, the stakeholders of the pilot regions have been mainly used as target groups for whom the pilot actions and project outputs have been developed. A wider range of scientists, planners and practioners have especially been used for expert inputs at the winter school and the conference in Lyon. The competences of regional and local mobility actors have been used to adapt the pilot actions to the specific local contexts. Competences of decision-makers and of households have been used less.

Are the results (tool, method, indicator, recommendation) directly or indirectly addressing the strategic objectives for the Alpine Space?
Yes, as the tools adress the integration of urban and transport development, but also equity in access to services across the Alps. Globally, Moreco aims at supporting a sustainable, resource-friendly settlement development, around central supply facilities and along public transport axes. It contributes to the aim of a balanced territorial development to make the Alpine Space (AS) an attractive place to live, work and invest.

“MORECO will improve the accessibility of Alpine Space areas by integrating mobility plans into planning actions and fostering the public transport. This leads to a decrease in the use of private cars, to a reduction of traffic, congestion and pollution, to an improvement of the accessibility to services, and to a better connectivity within cities, with their hinterland and among cities. All these actions will result in a better quality of life, which will benefit from a rational planning. It directly influences climate change by avoiding future private motorised traffic, secures access and the use of existing infrastructures and reinforces polycentric territorial patterns.” (methodology, p.20).

The outputs try to contribute to a strong balance between territorial and mobility planning. More specifically, the developed tools aim to influence directly (tools to integrate spatial planning and transport planning) and indirectly (information, awareness-raising, influencing actor decisions and cooperation) on AS objectives.

Direct influence:

  • Good Practice Collection of Integrated Planning Approaches
  • Good Practice Collection of Tools
  • White Book and Declaration

Indirect influence:

  • Guideline and framework: Tools for Planners and Mobility Actors
  • A) Regional analysis tools, Maps
  • B) Settlement assessment tool
  • C) Mobility planning tool
  • Guideline and framework: Policy-Maker tool, slide pool
  • Guideline and framework: Tools for Households
  • Tools for Households

What could be long-term outcomes of this project? If none, why low impact? Why high impact? What is needed to achieve outcomes in the long-run?
In general, project outputs enhanced the knowledge base for mobility and residential cost issues by spreading information and experiences among all stakeholders.

For the pilot regions, long-term outcomes of the project could be an increased awareness of all stakeholders, from decision-makers to practitioners, for sustainable settlement development, which is based on integrated transport and spatial planning. More directly, tools and methods could be introduced into spatial strategies and governance processes.

For the civil society and households, awareness on mobility costs, accessibility of public services and location alternatives might influence location preferences, residential location choice and thus mobility and migration behaviour. In this way, moreco might contribute to a sustainable settlement development both from a bottom-up and top-down perspective.

However, project outputs should be considered as experimental case studies in the pilot regions, even if tools are already operational. To achieve long-term outcomes, the project states that the applied methods should be leveraged by new actions in the pilot regions in the future, and potentially beyond (see also the white paper: lessons learnt).

Outcomes and Impacts

Unlike project outputs, outcomes and results cannot be described in a standardised way. Therefore, they are listed as free text:
Achievements that could be further implemented

  • Inhabitants of the pilot regions know that the information on MORECO issues or services do exist and are available, but other do not.
  • Adequate training sessions for major local stakeholders, interested to use or to disseminate the

tools themselves are part of the good practices

  • Basically, the awareness raising tools on mobility and settlement development issues could be interesting for any urban region in the alpine space. Rather low effort and resource intensity because tools are developed in multiple languages. Tools have to be adapted to new areas, though. Constraints: data availability, technical knowledge, translation
  • Overall methodologies and tool developments are accessible, but only in English. Theoretical basis of household motivations are given also in English. The approach is thus transferable, if it would be better disseminated.

Remaining gaps

  • The statistical local/regional data needed were not available in the same way in all Alpine Space countries → tools need to be adapted to every region.
  • The adaptation of the prototypes to the local context of each partner, data collection and translation of information. It is notable that the adaption processes differ very much from pilot site to pilot site. Some started very early and developed their own approach.
  • Measuring the impact of awareness-raising actions concerning the urban sprawl has not been possible at the moment of the evaluation.
  • A social change (what MORECO dissemination wanted to achieve with households and private actors) does not take place for the moment. Selling the idea of a better choice of location and mobility for future residents is a long term project.

Emerging contradictions
Project aims and outputs seem to be coherent with SSD aims. Encouraging housing in central and dense locations, however, might reinforce the demand in these areas, leading to higher housing prices. In the end, a household might end up with an equally high budget compared to a location farer away where he would have higher travel costs. Changing preferences has to go in line with construction and housing price policy.

Accessibility of project results


wiki/moreco.txt · Last modified: 2017/03/23 14:23 by apolderman