An ecosystem is a dynamic complex of plant, animal, and microorganism communities (biotic, see Biomas) and their non-living (abiotic, see abiotic processes, abiotic services) environment interacting as a functional unit (Maes et al. 2014; Reid 2005) 1) 2). Humans, where present, are an integral part of ecosystems (Harrington et al. 2010).
Maes, J.; Teller, A.; Erhard, M.; Murphy, P.; Paracchini, M. L.; Barredo, J. I. et al. (2014): Mapping and assessment of ecosystems and their services. Indicators for ecosystem assessments under action 5 of the EU biodiversity strategy to 2020 : 2nd report - final, February 2014. Luxembourg: Publications Office (Technical Report, 2014-080).
Reid, W. V. (Ed.) (2005): Ecosystems and human well-being. Synthesis; a report of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, MEA - Millennium Ecosystem Assessment & WRI - World Resources Institute. Washington, DC.
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