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Service Providing Area (SPA)

The Service Providing Area (SPA) is the spatial unit in which an ecosystem service is provided. This area can include animal and plant populations, abiotic components as well as human actors (Syrbe et al. 2017) 1). It can be related to a Service Benefitting Area (SBA) in situ, i.e. the benefit is used where it is produced, central (the benefitting area is surrounded by the providing area), omnidirectional (service benefitting area surrounds the service providing area) or via a Service Connecting Area (SCA).

In AlpES the Service Providing Areas are the EU LAU2 units (municipalities) characterized for every ecosystem service mainly through the supply indicator.

1)
Syrbe, R.-U.; Schröter, M.; Grunewald, K.; Walz, U. & Burkhard, B. (2017): What to map? In: Burkhard, B. & Maes, J. (Hg.): Mapping Ecosystem Services. Sofia: Pensoft Publishers, p. 151–158.
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