The term “intermediate ES” is broadly used in literature concerning ES research “as a way of indicating speciﬁc ecological characteristics that underpin the output of a ‘ﬁnal’ ecosystem service”. An intermediate ES therefore expresses an ecological function or process not used directly by a beneficiary, but which necessary for the provision of those final ecosystem services which are used directly (Potschin et al. 2014) 1).
As predecessor of final ecosystem services, with an eye on sustainable environmental governance the AlpES project considers also intermediate services as relevant. They need to be clearly earmarked as such though. They will not be assessed within the project as this bears the risk of double counting leading to the overrepresentation of certain ecosystem functions and service aspects.