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Synergies of ES

Synergistic interactions between ecosystem services allow for simultaneous enhancement in the supply of more than one ES. A forest restoration may lead to improvements in several cultural, provisioning, and regulating ES. (Haase et al. 2012; Svadlenak-Gomez et al. 2014) 1) 2). The opposite is defined as ES trade-off.

1)
Haase, D.; Schwarz, N.; Strohbach, M.; Kroll, F. & Seppelt, R. (2012): Synergies, Trade-offs, and Losses of Ecosystem Services in Urban Regions. An Integrated Multiscale Framework Applied to the Leipzig-Halle Region, Germany. In: Ecology and Society 17 (3).
2)
Svadlenak-Gomez, K.; Gerritsmann, H. & Walzer, C. (2014): The EU Biodiversity Policy Landscape. Existing policies and their perceived relevance and impact in key sectors in the Alpine Region. Ed. by greenAlps project. Vienna.
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